Accessibility Information

Users of assistive technologies such as screen readers should use the following link to activate Accessibility Mode before continuing: Learn more and Activate accessibility mode.

Federal Business Opportunities

  • Business presentation
  • Business presentation
  • Business presentation
  • Business presentation
  • Business presentation
  • Business presentation

Search more than 31,500* federal opportunities.

ATTENTION: The U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) updated its Table of Small Business Size Standards adopting the Office of Management and Budget’s 2017 revision of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) effective October 1, 2017. The revised NAICS Codes and their corresponding size standards are available for use in FBO. The updated table of size standards is available on SBA’s website at www.sba.gov/size.

SAM.gov REGISTRATION IS FREE: There is NO FEE to register, or maintain your registration, in the System for Award Management (SAM.gov). If you receive an email from a company claiming to represent SAM.gov, be cautious. If you get an e-mail from a company offering to help you register in SAM.gov asking you to contact them and pay them money, be cautious. These messages are not from the Federal Government. It is FREE TO REGISTER in SAM.gov for any entity.

ATTENTION: Agency users are responsible for properly uploading controlled, unclassified materials to FBO using the access control procedures for document packages and attachments detailed in the FBO Buyers Guide. Do not upload ANY classified materials to FBO.

Important Password Update – Users and Interfacing Systems must reset their passwords as required every 90 days or the account will be disabled IAW GSA IT Security Policy, (CIO P 2100.1). Registered users will receive an email notification to remind them of this requirement. If your account has been disabled, contact the Federal Service Desk at 866-606-8220 (Monday – Friday 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ET).

NOTE: If your account was re-enabled after contacting the FSD, you must reset your password before midnight on the day of the call to prevent it from being disabled once again.

Buyers / Engineers

Government users may post, manage, and award opportunities.

Vendors / Citizens

Vendors and citizens may search, monitor, and retrieve opportunities.



business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Events

Business presentation

The New Orleans EMBA online webinar is typically held one Wednesday per month. Each online webinar lasts about 30 minutes and covers program basics and admissions related.

Business presentation

Gyl Grinberg is the president of Val-Fit Inc., a master distributor of products for the PVF industry, which is headquartered in Houston, TX. He along with his brother Roy, who.

Blog News

Business presentation

During a trip to Shanghai in November, the Freeman School’s Anu Varadharajan, lecturer and assistant director of the.

Business presentation

With a photo of themselves spelling out “NAWMBA,” members of Tulane Women in Business captured the most creative photo.

Business presentation

The A. B. Freeman School of Business celebrates Tulane Homecoming 2017 and Graduate Reunion Weekend on Nov. 3 – 5 with a.

Featured Event

Gyl Grinberg is the president of Val-Fit Inc., a master distributor of products for the PVF industry, which is headquartered in Houston, TX. He along with his brother Roy, who serves as executive vice-president, are second-generation owners. Gyl will discuss his family’s business sudden thrust into succession when his father passed away last year. It was then that Gyl and Roy were faced with working through differing leadership styles, manage an increasing number of family members who had.

Business presentation

Intellectual Contributions

Business presentation

Continuing the historic faculty recruiting effort that began in 2012, Tulane University’s A. B. Freeman School of Business welcomes seven new full-time professors to the faculty for the 2017-18.



business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Business presentation

Events

Business presentation

The New Orleans EMBA online webinar is typically held one Wednesday per month. Each online webinar lasts about 30 minutes and covers program basics and admissions related.

Business presentation

Gyl Grinberg is the president of Val-Fit Inc., a master distributor of products for the PVF industry, which is headquartered in Houston, TX. He along with his brother Roy, who.

Blog News

Business presentation

During a trip to Shanghai in November, the Freeman School’s Anu Varadharajan, lecturer and assistant director of the.

Business presentation

With a photo of themselves spelling out “NAWMBA,” members of Tulane Women in Business captured the most creative photo.

Business presentation

The A. B. Freeman School of Business celebrates Tulane Homecoming 2017 and Graduate Reunion Weekend on Nov. 3 – 5 with a.

Featured Event

Gyl Grinberg is the president of Val-Fit Inc., a master distributor of products for the PVF industry, which is headquartered in Houston, TX. He along with his brother Roy, who serves as executive vice-president, are second-generation owners. Gyl will discuss his family’s business sudden thrust into succession when his father passed away last year. It was then that Gyl and Roy were faced with working through differing leadership styles, manage an increasing number of family members who had.

Business presentation

Intellectual Contributions

Business presentation

Continuing the historic faculty recruiting effort that began in 2012, Tulane University’s A. B. Freeman School of Business welcomes seven new full-time professors to the faculty for the 2017-18.



#business presentation

#

5 Ways to Give Effective Business Presentations

How to give Effective Business Presentations

In our day-to-day life, we are in the habit of presenting, may it be in the form of sharing the highlights of our day, voicing out ideas and opinions, or chatting about our work.But in business, giving the best and effective presentations is a must, in order to close more leads and sales. Giving a presentation about your business and latest projects with clients or stakeholders or with a large audience, can be stressful or a bliss. It depends on how you prepare and take the experience.

Preparation and effective delivery are the most important steps for you to give the best business presentation and close that important deal and generate more sales.

In this article, I will outline 5 ways to give Effective Business Presentations:

1. Connect with your audience

Your presentation must fit the occasion and audience you are speaking to. For example, when you re presenting to high- profile clients, your presentation must be formal, organized and businesslike. But when you re speaking to students or friends, your presentation must be more simple and casual.

One of the best way to connect with your audience is to animate your presentation by putting popular quotes. Engage with your audience by asking questions that resonates with what they value.

Make your presentation touch at a personal level- how would your product and service make a difference on their lives, how does your products and services add value to your customers? Ask them questions and interact with your audience during your presentation.

2. Paint a picture in your audience minds

Let them picture out your idea, products, and services by placing pictures and images in your presentation. There s truth to the saying that, A picture paints a thousand words. But make sure to pick out great images and visuals that tell a moving story about your business, products and services.

Your presentation must leave a lasting impression on their minds long after they ve gone back to their offices or homes. That s why visuals are great since it lasts longer and can also be shared in the various social media sites.Convey your thoughts clearly by putting relevant content in your presentation. The flow of presentation looks like this:

    Flow of Presentation
  • The Opening: Grab the audience attention
  • Body: Substance and Purpose
  • Closing: Summary of Main points and Highlights

3. Put incredibly great content

Make your presentation count by putting content that matters. Don t be too wordy and stuffing your audience with too much content. The purpose of presentation is interaction, which means that, it is the backdrop and the highlight of your speech, so make it count.

Presentation also serves as your guide so that you know where to emphasize, pause, ask questions and elaborate more on the topic. Presentation also acts a promotion of your business, products and services.

4. Use statistics and data

One important thing to put in your presentations are charts and graphs based on research and statistics. This statistics must align with the purpose of your presentation. But don t make it too technical that your audience would need to look up a dictionary, almanac or Google for the definition of terms. Make your presentation as basic as possible and understandable by people of various demographics and background.

As Albert Einstein said, Make it simple, but not simpler.

5. You are the presentation

Presentations does not work when you the presentor is not an effective and confident speaker to talk about the subject. That means, the success of the presentation relies on you who delivers the content to your clients or audience.

Be confident and eliminate ahh, uhmms, you know in your speech. Be mindful of your body language so that it will convey authority, confidence and assurance that communicates to your audience.

Buddy up with a colleague or friend and practice your presentation beforehand. Be knowledgeable of the subject and data you re speaking about in the presentation beforehand. And, during your presentation, have a clear voice and tone and put emphasis on the most important topics in the presentation.

Add a sense of humor to make the presentation more interesting and entertaining for your audience.

And always remember, you are part of the presentation, so portray authority and confidence on the subject.

One of the great and effective speakers of our century is the late Steve Jobs. In one of his great speeches, Steve Jobs said, Stay hungry, and Stay foolish. In that light, we must continuously learn and hone our craft may it be in speaking, presenting, selling, working out tasks, and managing business.

FG Business Writer



#business presentation

#

5 Ways to Give Effective Business Presentations

How to give Effective Business Presentations

In our day-to-day life, we are in the habit of presenting, may it be in the form of sharing the highlights of our day, voicing out ideas and opinions, or chatting about our work.But in business, giving the best and effective presentations is a must, in order to close more leads and sales. Giving a presentation about your business and latest projects with clients or stakeholders or with a large audience, can be stressful or a bliss. It depends on how you prepare and take the experience.

Preparation and effective delivery are the most important steps for you to give the best business presentation and close that important deal and generate more sales.

In this article, I will outline 5 ways to give Effective Business Presentations:

1. Connect with your audience

Your presentation must fit the occasion and audience you are speaking to. For example, when you re presenting to high- profile clients, your presentation must be formal, organized and businesslike. But when you re speaking to students or friends, your presentation must be more simple and casual.

One of the best way to connect with your audience is to animate your presentation by putting popular quotes. Engage with your audience by asking questions that resonates with what they value.

Make your presentation touch at a personal level- how would your product and service make a difference on their lives, how does your products and services add value to your customers? Ask them questions and interact with your audience during your presentation.

2. Paint a picture in your audience minds

Let them picture out your idea, products, and services by placing pictures and images in your presentation. There s truth to the saying that, A picture paints a thousand words. But make sure to pick out great images and visuals that tell a moving story about your business, products and services.

Your presentation must leave a lasting impression on their minds long after they ve gone back to their offices or homes. That s why visuals are great since it lasts longer and can also be shared in the various social media sites.Convey your thoughts clearly by putting relevant content in your presentation. The flow of presentation looks like this:

    Flow of Presentation
  • The Opening: Grab the audience attention
  • Body: Substance and Purpose
  • Closing: Summary of Main points and Highlights

3. Put incredibly great content

Make your presentation count by putting content that matters. Don t be too wordy and stuffing your audience with too much content. The purpose of presentation is interaction, which means that, it is the backdrop and the highlight of your speech, so make it count.

Presentation also serves as your guide so that you know where to emphasize, pause, ask questions and elaborate more on the topic. Presentation also acts a promotion of your business, products and services.

4. Use statistics and data

One important thing to put in your presentations are charts and graphs based on research and statistics. This statistics must align with the purpose of your presentation. But don t make it too technical that your audience would need to look up a dictionary, almanac or Google for the definition of terms. Make your presentation as basic as possible and understandable by people of various demographics and background.

As Albert Einstein said, Make it simple, but not simpler.

5. You are the presentation

Presentations does not work when you the presentor is not an effective and confident speaker to talk about the subject. That means, the success of the presentation relies on you who delivers the content to your clients or audience.

Be confident and eliminate ahh, uhmms, you know in your speech. Be mindful of your body language so that it will convey authority, confidence and assurance that communicates to your audience.

Buddy up with a colleague or friend and practice your presentation beforehand. Be knowledgeable of the subject and data you re speaking about in the presentation beforehand. And, during your presentation, have a clear voice and tone and put emphasis on the most important topics in the presentation.

Add a sense of humor to make the presentation more interesting and entertaining for your audience.

And always remember, you are part of the presentation, so portray authority and confidence on the subject.

One of the great and effective speakers of our century is the late Steve Jobs. In one of his great speeches, Steve Jobs said, Stay hungry, and Stay foolish. In that light, we must continuously learn and hone our craft may it be in speaking, presenting, selling, working out tasks, and managing business.

FG Business Writer



#business presentation

#

Those who give presentations at conferences, as part of a sales demo, in a marketing push for a new product, or even during a TED talk know how to wow an audience. They excel at turning a boring presentation into something people will talk about in the hallway and even on the ride back to the office. Recently, the folks at FlowVella –an app for making presentations on computer, phone, and tablet–sent me tips from some of their customers on how to make sure your presentation is a winner.

1. Tell a story.

“Instead of boring your audience to tears, develop a genuine connection with your audience. How? Throughout your presentation, tell stories that add meaning and depth to your message. Telling personal stories will make you more likable, trustworthy, and interesting. In addition, facts and stats typically stimulate only two areas of the human brain, but stories can activate up to seven, and trigger emotional responses within listeners. Presentations that are engaging both mentally and emotionally are more memorable and influential, thus more successful.”
Leslie Belknap, marketing director at Ethos3

2. Vary the template.

“If it looks stock, it probably is. Altering an existing template doesn’t take a tremendous amount of time. It also indicates that the presenter knows how to represent the idea and narrative visually. Don’t be afraid to change colors, add logos, and alter the elements for a totally unique look with just a few minutes of work. Font selection is very important. The font is not just a typeface. It represents the idea through the actual look of the word. It should align with the tone of the core idea/narrative. Furthermore, font selection is most critical for readability. Adding a bursting star doesn’t mean you are increasing the impact of a point or a component of a slide/frame. Instead, add punch with mixed media. Bringing an idea or point to life through text, images, photography, video, etc. is much more memorable than cheap movements. Your software should allow for insertion of PDFs and video.”–Ryan Mack, president of Carrot Creative. a VICE Company

3. Use a storyboard.

“The most traditional (and foolish) way to create a presentation is to open up a blank PowerPoint document and try to make magic happen. This can result in mistakes in flow, logic, and overall cohesion, as you try to write and design each concept in real time. Steal a writer’s tip and create a text-only framework for the entire thing before you launch into the full draft. It’s just like the outline you used to create for fifth-grade book reports, where all of your sub points support your main points, and the intro and outro tie everything together. Aim for a single summary of your core idea, supported by three smaller sub points that will prove your summary. And of course, don’t start to design your work without making sure that the outline is airtight. The result? No more strange tangents, lost points, and unnecessary slides.”
Sunday Avery, content writer at Ethos3

4. Think about introverts and extroverts in the audience.

“One of the best pieces of advice came to me from a mentor years ago. He told me all audiences are generally comprised of a 50/50 balance of introverts and extroverts. I have tested his theory on audiences since then and can attest to it’s validity. The grand lesson: never lean your presentation in one direction. For instance, if your presentation is dominated by workshops and activities, your extroverts are going to love you and your introverts are going to despise you. On the opposite end of that spectrum, if you lecture the entire time, your introverts will feel comfortable and your extroverts will get bored. Presenters must make the extra effort to balance their message and activities. Like most things in life, moderation is key.”
–Scott Schwertly, CEO of Ethos3

5. Keep it to three points.

“The human brain works like this: One, two, three. I forget. No one is going to remember your tenth point, yet most presenters today feel it is necessary to showcase everything they know about a specific topic. The sad reality is that we live in a world with short attention span. Presenters either win hearts by being succinct or they neglect this responsibility and get forgotten forever. Therefore, the stage or front of the room is not the appropriate place to exhibit your depth of knowledge via 17 different takeaways. No one is going to remember them, or you.”
–Scott Schwertly, CEO of Ethos3

6. Whatever you are selling, you are still selling ideas.

“It doesn’t matter what widget or service you’re offering. These days, people are not buying either–they are buying ideas. Nobody is buying an Apple Watch. They are buying the ideas of new fitness or faster communication or prestige and early adopter status, or some blend thereof. A presentation is no longer about closing anything but rather about germinating an idea that resonates with the audience. The idea then drives a passion to acquire the product or service. That’s a much stronger way to sell. But how do you create a presentation that plants the idea you are communicating into the mind of the viewer? And how do you stay on track when working with ideas? First, you have to ask who the audience is. Before I start a presentation, I make slide No. 1 and list all I know about the audience on it. Tech savvy or consumer end user? Decision makers or influencers? Buying for self or for the firm? Likes short and sweet or likes story and emotion? After that, I put topics in logical order on each of the following slides and build the images and the story to fit all the info I placed on Slide No. 1. That slide will keep telling me how to position my points to create ideas the audience can relate to and that will fan the fires of desire for my solutions.”
Jonathan Todd, managing director at 808 Marketing

7. Balance the theater and the scholar.

“George Lois said selling is the ultimate mix of scholarship and theatre, expertise and style. This could not be more appropriate to consider when designing presentations because at their core, presentations are a sales pitch–we communicate an idea to another individual or group of individuals in an attempt to make them agree, or ideally, fall in love with the idea. So, always be sure you are demonstrating scholarship with style. If you are all style, then you’re a poser. Potentially a hack. If you are all scholarship, then you’re boring. or worst off, forgettable. The balance is incredibly important.”
Ryan Mack, president of Carrot Creative, a VICE Company

The opinions expressed here by Inc.com columnists are their own, not those of Inc.com.



#business presentation

#

5 Ways to Give Effective Business Presentations

How to give Effective Business Presentations

In our day-to-day life, we are in the habit of presenting, may it be in the form of sharing the highlights of our day, voicing out ideas and opinions, or chatting about our work.But in business, giving the best and effective presentations is a must, in order to close more leads and sales. Giving a presentation about your business and latest projects with clients or stakeholders or with a large audience, can be stressful or a bliss. It depends on how you prepare and take the experience.

Preparation and effective delivery are the most important steps for you to give the best business presentation and close that important deal and generate more sales.

In this article, I will outline 5 ways to give Effective Business Presentations:

1. Connect with your audience

Your presentation must fit the occasion and audience you are speaking to. For example, when you re presenting to high- profile clients, your presentation must be formal, organized and businesslike. But when you re speaking to students or friends, your presentation must be more simple and casual.

One of the best way to connect with your audience is to animate your presentation by putting popular quotes. Engage with your audience by asking questions that resonates with what they value.

Make your presentation touch at a personal level- how would your product and service make a difference on their lives, how does your products and services add value to your customers? Ask them questions and interact with your audience during your presentation.

2. Paint a picture in your audience minds

Let them picture out your idea, products, and services by placing pictures and images in your presentation. There s truth to the saying that, A picture paints a thousand words. But make sure to pick out great images and visuals that tell a moving story about your business, products and services.

Your presentation must leave a lasting impression on their minds long after they ve gone back to their offices or homes. That s why visuals are great since it lasts longer and can also be shared in the various social media sites.Convey your thoughts clearly by putting relevant content in your presentation. The flow of presentation looks like this:

    Flow of Presentation
  • The Opening: Grab the audience attention
  • Body: Substance and Purpose
  • Closing: Summary of Main points and Highlights

3. Put incredibly great content

Make your presentation count by putting content that matters. Don t be too wordy and stuffing your audience with too much content. The purpose of presentation is interaction, which means that, it is the backdrop and the highlight of your speech, so make it count.

Presentation also serves as your guide so that you know where to emphasize, pause, ask questions and elaborate more on the topic. Presentation also acts a promotion of your business, products and services.

4. Use statistics and data

One important thing to put in your presentations are charts and graphs based on research and statistics. This statistics must align with the purpose of your presentation. But don t make it too technical that your audience would need to look up a dictionary, almanac or Google for the definition of terms. Make your presentation as basic as possible and understandable by people of various demographics and background.

As Albert Einstein said, Make it simple, but not simpler.

5. You are the presentation

Presentations does not work when you the presentor is not an effective and confident speaker to talk about the subject. That means, the success of the presentation relies on you who delivers the content to your clients or audience.

Be confident and eliminate ahh, uhmms, you know in your speech. Be mindful of your body language so that it will convey authority, confidence and assurance that communicates to your audience.

Buddy up with a colleague or friend and practice your presentation beforehand. Be knowledgeable of the subject and data you re speaking about in the presentation beforehand. And, during your presentation, have a clear voice and tone and put emphasis on the most important topics in the presentation.

Add a sense of humor to make the presentation more interesting and entertaining for your audience.

And always remember, you are part of the presentation, so portray authority and confidence on the subject.

One of the great and effective speakers of our century is the late Steve Jobs. In one of his great speeches, Steve Jobs said, Stay hungry, and Stay foolish. In that light, we must continuously learn and hone our craft may it be in speaking, presenting, selling, working out tasks, and managing business.

FG Business Writer



#

Diploma HE Architectural Interior Design

Dates: 11 Sept 2017 13 July 2018, 10am – 4pm

Length: Full-time, 1 academic year in 3 terms

Course Director: Alan Hughes MA

Location: 7 Eaton Gate, London SW1W 9BA

Fee: £26,546.00 inc VAT. An Instalment Plan is available, please ask the Course Administrator.

News:This Diploma has been newly validated by Wrexham Glyndŵr University and as such will form part of the BA (Hons) qualification. It now constitutes a Diploma HE Architectural Interior design at FHEQ Level 5. Please contact the School for details as the web is currently being updated.

Course Aims

  • To evaluate site and functional constraints and evolve design solutions.
  • To develop an understanding of design as it relates to the domestic and commercial interior together with the capability to present design ideas visually.
  • To develop spatial awareness, the capability to organise space with a knowledge and understanding of ergonomics and an ability to handle interior decorative elements.

Diploma HE Architectural Interior Design – course content

Throughout the course you will develop skills in the following modules:

Design

This is at the heart of the Diploma HE in Architectural Interior Design Course. It addresses the fundamental elements of design in interiors, covering survey spatial manipulation and planning, design concepts and form, use of light and colour and use of texture and materials.

Through project work supported by lectures you learn to approach the process of design as a problem-solving exercise, involving successful interpretation of the client brief and incorporating psychological and emotional considerations.

Design analysis

Analysis encourages spatial appreciation and the investigation of a site in terms of its current and proposed uses and its relationship in the wider context. It also encourages design development – methodically exploring alternative solutions before moving to the design stage with the use of diagrammatic assessments of tasks and the space needed to carry them out in conjunction with analysis of survey, circulation and ergonomics.

Graphics

Visual communication and presentation skills are essential for the dissemination of design information. You will develop two- and three-dimensional drawing skills and learn to use various rendering and colouring techniques in your design projects, alongside the creation of sample and illustration boards. You will also explore Vectorworks, an industry standard computer-aided design (CAD) software package, as a means of drawing up designs.

Construction

The understanding of constructional issues informs and exposes what is possible in interior design terms and it is crucial to comprehend the constraints and regulations with regards to the alteration of the built environment. You will examine structural principles and the fabric and services of both domestic and commercial buildings. The aim is to promote professional realistic thinking within your design proposals and to incorporate sound practice with imaginative and appropriate design solutions. You will also examine the technical application of hard and soft finishes, the detailed installation of services, staircase design and the design of built-in fitments.

Job administration

In this module of the course you will explore business issues relevant to the practice of interior design: types of business, accounts, tax, professional indemnity, personnel management, equipment, budgeting, tendering and placing orders, site supervision and the fee structure.

Diploma HE Architectural Interior Design – teaching methods and entry requirements

The Diploma HE in Architectural Interior Design course is taught through practical projects carried out in studio and lectures, and also includes visits. Course places are strictly limited to ensure that you gain close working relationships with teaching staff. You will be supported in studio at a ratio of 8/9:1.

You must demonstrate a commitment to deal with a heavy workload as the Diploma course is an intensive professional programme.

All teaching and lectures are conducted in English and the following criteria may be required if English is not your first language: IELTS 5.5 (with no individual element below 5.0).



#

Separation of Business Logic from Presentation Logic in Web Applications (ASP.NET and PHP)
Copyright 2003 Paragon Corporation ( July 19, 2003)

What do we mean by separation of Business Logic from Presentation Logic?


When we talk about business logic – we mean the following kind of logic

  • How we model real world business objects in our application – such as accounts, loans, travel itineraries etc
  • How these objects are stored
  • How these objects interact with each other – e.g. a bank account must have an owner and a bank holder’s portfolio is the sum of his accounts
  • Who can access and update these objects


Business Logic is often broken further into two components in the Model-View-Controller (MVC) paradigm — the Model, which defines how the data will be stored and retrieved; and the Controller, which controls the interaction between the Model and the View. For simplicity and practicality, we are not going to make this distinction. In many cases, we feel this distinction is unnecessary because the control flow pattern of the Model and the Controller is very similar and conceived of at the same time. So the benefits of separation or thinking of them as independent are often mitigated by the hassle of the extra layer.

When we speak about Presentation Logic we mean how we display these objects to a user. E.g do we have a drop down list or a popup screen? Do we display accounts in a list format and have the user pick which one to edit? etc. This is often referred to as the View in the MVC paradigm.

It is often difficult to determine where business logic ends and presentation logic begins. How you model your application often dictates what is possible in the user interface. Sometimes the business and presentation logic is so intricate and dependent on each other that the two get intertwined with each other. Sometimes it is often difficult or impossible to separate the two. In most other cases, separating the two is just a matter of discipline.

Why should we separate Business Logic from Presentation Logic


There are several reasons why separating business logic from presentation logic is desired. Below are a couple of reasons why we do it.

  • The kind of programming you do for each part and sometimes the language you do it in are different. Separating the two allows one to use the best tools for that particular part. For example if you are programming a user interface screen – the kinds of things you are concerned with are paging – e.g. how many records to show on a page, widths of forms, colors, readability etc. There is also the need to see the screen as you are developing and to position the items. On the business side you are not so concerned about visuals – you need to get the data from somewhere and you need to control what data is loaded, and how that data is updated. If you change your programming languages next year, it is much easier to reuse old code when it is separated. E.g your presentation would be mostly html or xml which can be easily refitted with a different model.
  • The two parts – business logic and presentation logic – do not always occur at the same time. For example, often times you design the screens first and then cut in the business logic later. Separating the two minimizes time dependency and allows for concurrent development. You can work on each part independently and then integrate them later or integrate in an iterative fashion.
  • Separation of Workforce: This is important for big organizations with very specialized people, but is less important for small shops where often the programming of all parts is done by the same person.
  • Separation of Thought and Readability of code: It is easier to read business logic that is not intermingled with presentation logic. Similarly, it is easier to look at the presentation of a screen or read html code without having to sift through the database and security logic. Case in point if you look at standard ASP,JSP, or PHP coding, you will often see structures with things like looping thru a dataset and spitting out results in html. If this happens it’s hard to tell when an html tag is missing or find the logic that tells where the data is coming from.

    Examples Using ASP.NET and PHP

    There are several approaches to achieving this separation in modern languages. In this section we will describe two such approaches that are commonly used.

    The first approach is the inheritance way which is commonly used in ASP.NET and is called Code-behind by Microsoft. The second approach is the template approach which is used in several web languages such as PHP and Java Servlets (WebMacro), Apache (Velocity). We will discuss a particular implementation in PHP that uses the Smarty Template engine and the PHP ADODB lib and a particular approach of doing code-behind (not using Visual Studio.NET).

    In the inheritance approach – the presentation (the web page) is a subclass of another class which contains the business logic. You can think of it as a creature with eyes and skin that inherits its other features from another class, but then tacks on eyes and skin.

    In the template approach – the presentation is merely a visual object that is controlled by something else – An analogy would be that of a puppet master to his puppets. A puppet master can tack on any puppet he wants at anytime, but usually has his favorites that he likes to work with. Similarly several puppet masters can share the same set of puppets. In this style the template (or presentation) is the puppet and the puppet master is the business logic class.

    There are advantages and disadvantages to both. In the inheritance approach there is a greater coupling which for one makes debugging logical errors a little easier. However another little creature can’t come along and easily say “I have the same list of fields to show can I borrow your skin for a moment,” as you can so easily in the template approach.

    The other thing that makes ASP.Net’s style different from the standard template approach is that ASP.NET instantiates all visual objects that are marked runat=server. This means that one can easily manipulate any property of a visual object – e.g the datagrid, data list etc. from the business logic page. In the template approach you would put markers in the template to do that so that you can stuff these markers at runtime. Again this is both a curse and a blessing. ASP.NET provides standardized properties you know will always be there e.g most objects can be hidden by setting the visible property to false. but if you need additional properties not defined, you need to create your own visual objects that inherit. The Smarty approach is a bit easier in this respect.

    A big downside of ASP.NET approach is that it has a plethora of classes for visual objects. To become really proficient in it, you have to understand these classes (at the very minimal the datagrid, datalist, forms), what the events mean and how the events are triggered. Editors like Visual Studio.NET minimize a bit on the need to understand these, but they themselves are bewildering to understand and control just the way you want it, and when things go wrong – you really need to understand the Abstractions you are depending on.

    Smarty is a particularly nice template engine; it stands out from the pack because it has an easily extensible plug-in architecture and comes with a lot of plug-ins that expedite common presentation issues such as generating a list, a dropdown list, radio button lists, calendar form controls etc. These plug-ins have similar counterparts to those you will find in ASP.NET, but they don’t deviate as much from the standard HTML model so are much quicker to learn and a bit easier for html editors to digest.

    Below is an example of how you would load data from a database and present it in an alternating colored row table in PHP/Smarty/ADODB vs. ASP.NET/ADO.NET.

    Business Logic (mylist.php)



  • #

    Welcome to the Microsoft Agent Ring!
    20 Years of Microsoft Agent and MSAgentRing,org

    Formed in September 1997, The Microsoft Agent Ring was the largest of its kind, collection of websites featuring Microsoft Agent technologies, and a Top 100 Web Ring for many years on the original WebRing.org and later RingSurf.com.

    Microsoft Agent is a free technology for Microsoft Windows 98/2000/XP, providing unprecedented technology to create innovative, new conversational interfaces for applications and Web pages. It provides powerful animation capability, interactivity, and versatility, with incredible ease of development.

    Microsoft Agent is a technology that provides a foundation for more natural ways for people to communicate with their computers. It is a set of software services that enable developers to incorporate interactive animated characters into their applications and Web pages. These characters can speak, via a text-to-speech engine or recorded audio, and even accept spoken voice commands. Microsoft Agent empowers developers to extend the user interface beyond the conventional mouse and keyboard interactions prevalent today.

    Enhancing applications and Web pages with a visible interactive personality will both broaden and humanize the interaction between users and their computers.

    If you have Genie, Merlin, and Robby Characters,
    please see the Agent Ring Introduction

    Press Releases

    Microsoft discontinues Microsoft Agent in Windows 7 and later. Although Microsoft Agent has been discontinued in Windows 7 and later, MASH and this website will remain for historical reasons and to still provide access for existing Windows XP users around the world.

    Enhanced User Interface for Software Applications and Web Sites To Speak to Millions of Users Worldwide in Their Own Languages.

    The Innovative Technology That Will Enhance Human-Computer Communication In Upcoming Products, Including Office 2000, Is Available for Download Now.

    New Technology Supports Interactive Characters for Internet and ActiveX-Based Applications, Enabling More Natural User Interfaces. Note: Microsoft Agent 1.0 was never officially released.

    ActiveX Technology for Interactive Software Agents

    Questions or Comments

    All comments and suggestions are welcome.

    Uses Microsoft® Agent Technology.

    Microsoft Corporation does not endorse and is not affiliated with the Microsoft Agent Ring. Neither Microsoft nor the Microsoft Agent Ring can be held responsible for the content of member sites.

    Microsoft and the Microsoft Agent Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries.

    The characters Genie , Merlin , Robby , and Peedy are
    Copyright © 1996-1998 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

    Copyright 1997-2016 by Gordon Scott Bell. All Rights Reserved.
    Updated: 2016-01-01