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New Rule for Health Insurance Costs in Virginia Child Support

Posted on July 22nd, 2015, by Benjamin Carafiol in Family Law. Comments Off on New Rule for Health Insurance Costs in Virginia Child Support

Each year, the Virginia legislature considers numerous proposed updates to Virginia family law. These updates range from universally significant changes such as last year’s revised child support guidelines (updated for the first time in nearly thirty years), to the loosened notice requirements for finalizing uncontested divorces, to addressing the perhaps mundane question of whether or not courts should consolidate juvenile cases under single case numbers.

That trend has continued into 2015, with the legislature passing—and Governor McAuliffe signing into law— updated provisions concerning the amount of health insurance cost to be included in calculating child support in Virginia.

Virginia’s child support guidelines provide courts a method for determining child support based on each parent’s income, the support by either parent of other children (such as by prior marriages), day care expenses and health care costs. Under the new law, effective July 1, 2015, for purposes of child support the health insurance cost per child is determined by subtracting the cost of individual coverage for the policy holder from the total cost of coverage, and dividing the remainder by the number of remaining covered persons. Thus, if the parent has other children or a new spouse on a family plan, they will not get credit for child support purposes for the full cost of family plan coverage minus self-only coverage.

The previous language in the Virginia Code directed courts to consider the costs paid by a parent above and beyond the coverage for the parent or a spouse of the parent. However, that language did not produce a fair result in all cases, most notably in the case of blended families.

In today’s modern world, both parents in child support cases may have children from other relationships, or may have remarried someone and brought stepchildren into their lives. This proved problematic for child support calculations, as health insurance plans don’t differentiate coverage for children based on who their parent is; if a child is eligible for coverage they are simply covered. Moreover, most health insurance plans that offer coverage for more than just an individual provide options for family or children, with the cost being the same for an individual covering one child as it is for an individual covering a dozen children.

Under the prior law, some courts took the view that, because the cost was fixed without consideration of the number of children covered, the appropriate amount to use in child support calculations was the entire cost of providing coverage to all children because this is the cost incurred beyond covering the parent or parent’s spouse. Other courts took the opposite view that, because there was no increased cost for adding a third, or seventh, or twelfth, child, no additional cost be included because no additional cost was actually incurred by the parent. Both approaches were equally defensible under the previous Virginia Code provisions, and both approaches produced unfair results.

The updated language takes the sensible approach and directs the court to determine what cost is added by looking at the proportionate cost of covering children under the plan. In the absence of specific statements from the insurer as to what the cost per child is, the court will divide the cost for coverage of all children by the number of children subject to the child support order. If four children are being covered by a health insurance policy, but only two of the children are subject to a child support case, then the court applies one-half of the cost of insurance to the child support calculation.

Example. Husband and Wife have been divorced and have two sons. Husband remarries and has a daughter with his new wife. He covers his two sons, his new wife and his daughter under a family insurance plan. The total cost of the family plan coverage is $150 per month. Self-only coverage would be $50 per month. Under the new Virginia law, for purposes of child support Husband s cost of insuring his two sons would be $50 per month. That figure is calculated as follows: $150 cost for family plan, less $50 cost for self-only = $100 per month; $100 per month divided by four people covered under the family plan (Husband s two sons, new wife and daughter) = $25 per person; $25 x two sons = $50. Thus, in calculating child support between Husband and Wife for their two sons, the court would take into account Husband s $50 per month health insurance cost for the boys.

Former Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. famously said [t]he life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience. What seemed to be straightforward direction to the judges resulted in inconsistency when dealing with these health insurance costs. Through experience, the legislature and courts have applied logic to come up with a fair way to address this issue for all parties, including blended families.

The family law attorneys of Livesay Myers, P.C. are experienced in the issues unique to blended families, and diligently review updates to all aspects of Virginia family law to always remain at the forefront of the legal field. We represent clients in Fredericksburg. Fairfax. Manassas. Leesburg and throughout Northern Virginia. Contact us today to schedule a consultation.

About Benjamin Carafiol

Ben Carafiol is a senior family lawyer in the Fredericksburg office of Livesay Myers. He has years of experience representing clients in the courts of Fredericksburg, Stafford, Spotsylvania and surrounding areas. Knowledgeable in all areas of family law, he is particularly experienced with issues of military and government retirement.



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Northwestern Mutual Unveils New Data On Long-Term Care Costs Across The Nation

Milwaukee, WI /PRNewswire/ — Northwestern Mutual’s latest Cost of Long-Term Care study. released today, reveals consistently high costs for home health care, assisted living and nursing home care across the nation, underscoring the critical need to address long-term care as part of financial security planning.

Further complicating the issue, America is getting older. According to the 2010 U.S. Census. there are now more Americans over the age of 65 than any other age group, and U.S. Department of Health & Human Services statistics show that people reaching age 65 have an average life expectancy of an additional 18.6 years (19.8 years for females and 17.1 years for males). 1

“What’s interesting is that most people realize they will need care, and yet by their own admission they’re not sure how they plan for it,” said Steve Sperka, Northwestern Mutual vice president of long-term care. “The first step is very simple. Sit down with a trusted advisor to coordinate a financial plan that addresses this risk. By addressing these questions early on, you put yourself in the driver’s seat when it comes to difficult decisions down the road.”

While costs vary widely based on location and type of care, the study shows that the national average daily rate for a single occupancy, private nursing home room is $246.06 per day, or almost $90,000 for one year of care. According to the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, the average length of stay in a nursing home is 2.4 years, which equates to more than $215,000 in care alone.

Other highlights from the 2011 Cost of Long-Term Care study include:

  • Assisted Living Facilities: The National average monthly rate for a private, single occupancy room in an Assisted Living Facility in the U.S. is $3,372.41 per month. The National average monthly rate for a shared room in an Assisted Living Facility is $2,592.40 per month.
  • Home Healthcare: The National average hourly rate for Home Health Aides provided by a certified Home Healthcare Agency is $20.65 per hour. The National average hourly rate for Home Health Aides provided by a non-certified Home Healthcare Agency is $23.98 per hour.
  • Long term care costs vary considerably across the country. For example, the national average for the monthly rate for a private, single occupancy room in an Assisted Living Facility is $3,372.41 per month. Comparatively, in Washington, DC, Virginia and Maryland the cost for this same care is just over $6,600 per month and in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, an individual would pay just $1,200 per month.

“While costs vary greatly from region to region the need for long-term care planning does not,” continued Sperka. “The data is sobering, and doesn’t even include the added expenses of medical equipment, transportation, drugs and other hidden costs. Relative to other financial commitments in retirement, long-term care costs are disproportionately high and people need to think ahead to lessen the financial and emotional impact.”

Former broadcast journalist Meryl Comer knows what it means to be a caregiver to her husband, who was diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer’s 17 years ago. She shared her personal story with Northwestern Mutual in this video.

Resources for Long Term Planning Northwestern Mutual has a range of resources to help individuals think about and plan for long-term care needs:

  • Visit the Long-Term Care Cost Calculator to help you better understand the potential cost if you were to require long-term care services
  • Visit the Lifespan Calculator to estimate out how many years you may live in retirement
  • Learn more about the long-term care costs and options available to you

About the Research
From August through November 2011, the Long Term Care Group, Inc. conducted customized Cost of Care research on behalf of Northwestern Long Term Care Insurance Company of nearly 4,400 assisted living facilities, nursing homes and home health care providers in specific regions of the United States.

About Northwestern Mutual
The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company – Milwaukee, WI (Northwestern Mutual) has helped clients achieve financial security for more than 150 years. As a mutual company with $1.2 trillion of life insurance protection in force, Northwestern Mutual shares, where possible, its gains with policyowners and delivers consistent and dependable value to clients over time. Northwestern Mutual and its subsidiaries offer a holistic approach to financial security solutions including: life insurance. long-term care insurance. disability insurance. annuities. investment products. and advisory products and services. Subsidiaries include Northwestern Mutual Investment Services, LLC. broker-dealer, registered investment advisor, member FINRA and SIPC; the Northwestern Mutual Wealth Management Company. limited purpose federal savings bank; and Northwestern Long Term Care Insurance Company ; and Russell Investments. Further information can be found at http://www.northwesternmutual.com.

1″A Profile of Older Americans: 2009″ Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://www.aoa.gov/AoAroot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/2009/2.aspx

SOURCE: The Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company

Copyright 2012 PR Newswire. All Rights Reserved



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Our CleanSpace Dealers Serving Michigan

Bay Construction is a crawl space repair specialist in the greater Traverse City, MI area.

Crawl Space Repair Contractors in Michigan

Due to the “Lake-Effect” precipitation, your Michigan home is susceptible to excessive moisture damage from the crawl space.

Moisture underneath your house – in the form of condensation, water vapor, or liquid – is a recipe for rot as well as unhealthy mold that can be sucked up into your home. Therefore, whatever is in your crawl space air is in your house and affecting, whether you spend any time in the crawl space or not. If there is high humidity downstairs, there is higher humidity upstairs than there would be otherwise. If there is mold in the crawl space, there are mold spores upstairs.

If you’re dealing with a crawl space moisture problem in Michigan, we can help! We’re pioneers in the crawl space repair industry with our CleanSpace system that includes several patented state-of-the-art crawl space products:

Whether you live in Detroit, Grand Rapids, Ann Arbor, Lansing, Flint, Warren or Sterling Heights, our certified CleanSpace installer in your local area will give you a FREE Inspection and Written Estimate. Contact us online or call 800-638-7048 and let us solve your damp crawl space problem.

Crawl spaces have a bad reputation as cramped, damp, dirty spaces that harbor bad-smelling mold, insects and other pests. The CleanSpace system of crawl space repair is designed to turn this ugly area into an asset a part of your house you can actually be proud of. Our trained technicians make this transformation possible by combining waterproofing techniques with high-performance insulation, durable moisture barriers and effective air-sealing strategies.

Looking for a quote for crawl space encapsulation.

I have a small cabin on Elk Lake and would like quote to insulate the crawl space adequately. it’s pretty dry but would like the old insulation out and preferably have the rim joist cavities spray foamed and the walls insulated and a liner over the ground. I have one quote but believe it’s really high based on testimonials I’ve seen from customers of other companies.

I have a crawl space entry that let’s water in. Would like it to be at least five feet wide by three to four feet deep. Your entry system looks great and may be what I need.

I recently purchased the home and the crawl space is about 1440 sq ft with a dirt floor and no obvious signs of mold, wood root, and little evidence of moisture. I am interested in encapsulation as a means to add value to the home as well as for improved health of residents and reduced utility costs. Due to my erratic work schedule, it may be best to communicate, at least initially, through email. The sellers have been given until July 1 to vacate so I would be interested in an inspection mid July forward. While the address is Williamsburg, the location is just off Bunker Hill Rd and 31 in Acme.

The opening to my crawl space is 32″ X 24″

Rehabbing a home with a crawl space that needs to be sealed



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Computer engineers participate in some of the most forward-looking work in industry and government today, particularly telecommunications, computer networks and microelectronics. You become a resourceful expert in such dynamic fields as computer networks, VLSI design and testing, embedded systems design and computer architecture. Focusing on principles and concepts underlying the design and integration of hardware and software components and systems, this online Master s in Computer Engineering gives you what you must know to become a serious professional, confident in electronically controlled systems and devices.

NOTE: Please refer to the Course Catalog to view course descriptions by course number if information is not listed below.

Admissions Requirements

The admissions requirements for this program are parallel to the on-campus requirements. View the Computer Engineering, MS admissions requirements .

Curriculum

Course Requirements

One must complete a total of 30 credits, as described below, with an overall average of 3.0, to earn a Master of Science in Computer Engineering degree at the School of Engineering. In addition, an average of 3.0 is also required among all regular courses, not counting independent studies including thesis, projects and reading courses. At least 15 out of 30 credits should be graduate ECE credits (courses with EL-prefix). Remaining course can be either EL or CS prefixed courses.

Core Courses (6 credits)

The core courses cover fundamental material and should be taken as early as possible. An advanced course subsequent to a core course may be taken in lieu of the core course, upon approval by the program advisor. All students must choose two out of the following core courses:

3 Credits Computer Architecture I CS-GY 6133 This course provides students with an understanding of computer-hardware subsystems, digital design strategies and fundamental computer-performance and capacity-improvement techniques. Combinational and sequential circuits are developed for the essential building blocks of computers. Binary number systems are presented in both human and computer algorithms. A uniprocessor computer is built from the blocks developed. An assembly language and an instruction set are presented. Processor implementation with a data path and hardwired and microprogrammed control is introduced. Performance evaluation of computers is studied. Basic pipelining is introduced to improve system performance. Memory-hierarchy alternatives are introduced to improve the capacity of the computing system.

Prerequisite: Graduate standing. *Online version available. 3 Credits Advanced Hardware Design EL-GY 6463 This course shows how a hardware-description language (for example, VHDL) can be used for computer hardware modeling, logic synthesis, register-level synthesis and simulation. The resulting design with hundreds or thousands of gates is then ready to be downloaded to form FPGA chips or silicon cells. Programs used: QuickVHDL, modeling and simulation tools from Mentor Graphics or similar large-scale programs. A design project is required and students make a written and oral presentation.

Prerequisite: Graduate status. 3 Credits Fundamentals of Solid-State Electronic Devices EL-GY 6513 Introduction to semiconductor materials, energy band structures, and carrier transport; p-n junctions and Schottky barriers; heterostructures; bipolar and field-effect transistors; and introduction/survey of some electronic/optoelectronic devices that utilizes above device concepts.

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing or Undergraduate Standing with 3.0 GPA or higher and completion of MA-UY 2034 and PH-UY 2023. 3 Credits Introduction to Vlsi System Design EL-GY 6473 This course covers CMOS processing technology, MOS transistor theory, static/dynamic circuit and logic design techniques, circuit performance estimation, standard cells and gate arrays, clocking strategies, input/output structures, datapath, memory and control logic design. Advanced VLSI CAD tools are used for schematic capture, layout, timing analysis and simulations for functionality and performance.

Prerequisite: Senior or Graduate status, CS-UY 2204 EE-UY 3114 or equivalent. 3 Credits Nanoelectronic Devices EL-GY 6523 Introduction to quantum mechanics (Schroedinger s equation); energy-band diagrams in semiconductors, quantum effects in MOS transistors; analytical description of ultra-thin body (UTB) MOSFETs, FinFETs and tunnel FETs; introduction to mesoscopic transport; MIT virtual source model; novel channel materials for transistors (InGaAs, graphene, carbon nanotubes), alternate state variable devices (design in sub-nanometer nodes, spintronics).

Prerequisites: Graduate Standing or undergraduate students must have 3.0 cumulative GPA or higher.

Electives (21 credits)

Other graduate ECE and CSE courses (courses with EL and CS prefixes) can be found on the electives page. At least 15 out of 30 credits should be graduate ECE credits (EL numbered courses). Up to two graduate courses can be taken from other science, engineering, or management departments at NYU. The total number of credits for 5000-level EL courses and non-EL/CS courses cannot exceed 12 credits. Note that credits from 5000-level courses from other departments cannot be counted towards MS/EE degree, except with approval by the program director.

Note about CS-GY 6843 Computer Networking: We expect most students have covered this material in an undergraduate course. Therefore students can only take this course in exceptional cases and only if approved by Professor Yong Liu.

Project Requirements (3 credits)

One 3-credit advanced project in ECE/CSE (EL-GY 9953 or CS-GY 9963) is required.Certain courses with significant project component may be used to partially satisfy the project requirement, subject to approval by the program director.

3 Credits Advanced Project I EL-GY 9953 This course requires a student to conduct a theoretical and/or experimental project in a research area in electrical and computer engineering. The project is chosen based on the student’s specialized interest and preparation and is guided by a faculty member who is expert in the chosen subject. Oral presentation or a written report is required at the adviser’s discretion. A student must secure a project adviser before registration.

Prerequisite: Degree status. 3 Credits Advanced Project in Computer Science CS-GY 9963 This course permits the student to perform research in computer science with a narrower scope than a master’s thesis. Acceptance of a student by a faculty adviser is required before registration. A project report and an oral examination on it are required.

Prerequisite: Graduate status.

MS Thesis Option: (6 credits)

A thesis in ECE/CSE (EL-GY 997X/CS-GY 997X) may be selected to replace the 3-credit Advanced Project and a course from the elective group above.

MS Thesis in Electrical & Computer Engineering Department EL-GY 997X The student is required to conduct a theoretical and/or experimental project in a research area in electrical engineering, computer engineering, electrophysics, system engineering, or telecommunication networks. The project is chosen based on the student’s specialized interest and preparation and is guided by a faculty member who is expert in the chosen subject. Oral-thesis defense and formal, bounded thesis are required. Registration of at least 6 credits over continuous semesters is required. A student must secure a thesis adviser before registration.

Prerequisite: Degree status. MS Thesis in Computer Science CS-GY 997X Exceptional students may elect to write a master’s thesis for which no more than 6 credits may be earned toward the degree. Such research should demonstrate adequately the student’s proficiency in the subject material. Also required: oral thesis defense before at least three professors, plus a formal, bound thesis volume. Thesis registration must be continuous.

Prerequisites: Graduate status and satisfactory grades in prescribed courses.

Degree Requirements: 30 Credits



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Computer Repair with Diagnostic Flowcharts Third Edition – PDF Now Available

Copyright 2013 by Morris Rosenthal

All Rights Reserved

Eight of the troubleshooting flowcharts for PC hardware from my book “Computer Repair with Diagnostic Flowcharts Third Edition” are excerpted on this site and linked below. The non-active links are for charts that are included in the book but not available online. The Third Edition is 170 pages and includes seventeen flowcharts for troubleshooting PCs plus explanatory text for every decision symbol on every flowchart. The troubleshooting process is the same for an expensive Sony or IBM, or a cheaper eMachines or Acer. Dell and HP (who purchased Compaq) manufacture desktop PC’s in a wide range of price points, but you have to go through the same troubleshooting steps for the cheap ones as the expensive ones if you want to correctly identify and repair the failure.

The PDF eBook is available for instant download or the paperback book can ordered from Amazon for $19.95. or from Amazon UK for 13.95 or through any retail store by the title “Computer Repair with Diagnostic Flowcharts Third Edition” or ISBN 0972380183. International customers outside of countries served by Amazon will normally get the best price through the Book Depository.

  • Power Supply Failure
  • Video Card and Display
  • Video Performance
  • CPU, RAM and Motherboard
  • Motherboard. CPU and RAM Performance (flowchart on poster)
  • Hard Drive Failure
  • Hard Drive Performance (flowchart on poster)
  • CD and DVD Failure
  • CD and DVD Recording Problems (flowchart on poster)
  • Modem Failure
  • Modem Performance
  • Sound Card Diagnostics
  • Sound and Game Controller Performance
  • Network Troubleshooting
  • SAS and SCSI Failure (flowchart on poster)
  • Peripheral Failure
  • Conflict Resolution

  • Boot Failure Troubleshooting Poster ( 30″ x 30″ printable PDF). Zoom to 100% after it opens or you’ll barely be able to read it! Poster not for sale, but you are authorized to print a copy for personal or classroom use. To print at full size requires an “E” size plotter or a large copy shop printer. My local copy shop charged $7.00 to print a copy.

Computer Repair with Diagnostic Flowcharts Third Edition: Troubleshooting PC Hardware Problems from Boot Failure to Poor Performance, is not for absolute beginners, as you can see from looking at any of the diagnostic charts. There are no photo-illustrations in the book, no history, nor explanations of basic computer part functions, like “What’s a hard drive?” The focus of the book is teaching a structured approach to PC repair. The intended audience is hobbyists who already have some experience repairing computers or beginning computer technicians. The book has been adopted as a class text in several technical colleges and vocational training programs. A free evaluation copy is available to instructors of PC repair courses who can demonstrate they are on the faculty of recognized educational institution in the U.S.

The PC diagnostics apply to ATX computers, which displaced the old AT standard beginning in the mid-90’s. Although I included a few “live power” troubleshooting procedures for advanced techs with their insurance all paid up, the rule for ATX systems is to unplug the power supply before working in the case. The general approach in the diagnostic flowcharts is to try to push parts swapping off until the end, so that readers without a large stock of spare parts will have a chance to fix the problem without spending money. Flowchart critics please note that my main design approach was to avoid crossed lines, which I believe make flowcharts useless.



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Free Hosted PBX

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The Hosted PBX is completely FREE and normally you will need a DID (that is a normal telephone-number where people can reach you from the normal telephone network). The DID s however need to be paid for.

Choose one below (and fill that out in the order form). Mostly you can NOT work without a DID so choose the country of your choice.
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Local Telephone numbers (DID s) to choose from:

Prices are per single number; each number comes with 2 channels by default * .
Terms conditions below.

Prices in EUR excl. 19% V.A.T. Latest update: 22 July 2009

* except The Netherlands; 1 channel per default.

Terms conditions for DID s

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Compare the difference between Bronze Memorials Inc. and the other bronze plaque companies and you will see a big difference right away! Our Customer base is over 40,000 after 38 years in business. Our goal is to help you design a beautiful plaque, and to meet your deadline, at the very best lowest price, with the fastest deliver in the U.S.A. Bronze Memorials is the best company to make your plaque. It’s Simple, Easy & Fast! Bronze and Aluminum Plaques have a lifetime guarantee. Our outstanding customer service, quality, and price is the real difference. We save you time and money with our personal, customer service, lowest price and fastest shipping in the USA. FREE ground shipping on orders over $1000. To all United States addresses including Alaska and Hawaii and all military addresses around the world. We do not charge extra to ship to our military. We have a 100% back satisfaction guarantee. Easy to locate phone numbers for 24 hour personal customer service from Us to you! Lowest prices guaranteed, we will beat your best price quote by 10%. We don’t miss deadlines Instant Prices available to you.

We have been in business over 38 years and we are one of 1st bronze plaque companyies to sell cast bronze plaques on the internet and have been doing so since 2005. We can make any size, shape, color plaque you desire and have been making Custom Bronze Plaques for more than 40,000 customers. We are a local company, just like being next door, order from your desk, deliver to your desk in as little as 5 Days. Bronze Memorials Inc. is a 100% woman owned business enterprise. Order today, get next week. Simple!

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10 working days is standard production on bronze plaques, full color bronze plaques, photo plaques, 5 working days for rush service * FREE artwork, FREE shipping on orders OVER $750. No company ships faster, FREE fast pricing Get a FREE price quote 72 hours dedication service available, Dedication Presentation Board: Don’t miss your deadline, Bronze Memorials will provide a full size bronze color presentation board matching your plaque design, and have the board delivered to you in 3 days, with overnight express shipping, to meet your deadlines.

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A trusted company providing quality service safe & secure for over 38 years. See what our customers are saying.



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Conflict Theory in Criminal Justice

Conflict theory is a field of sociology that focuses on competition and the dynamics of conflicting interests between different social groups as the fundamental force underpinning culture and politics. Conflict theories of criminal justice look at criminal laws as a means by which more prosperous and powerful social groups exercise control and containment over socially disadvantaged groups.

Types

Race-based conflict theory posits that the criminal justice system is skewed in favor of members of the socially-dominant white race, while biased against members of Hispanic, black, or indigenous racial and ethnic groups. “Radical” criminology is a conflict theory roughly following Marxist ideas holding that society is split along lines of economic prosperity, with the wealthy using criminal laws and punishment to oppress the poor and working classes. Other types of conflict theories of criminal justice include perceiving of the conflicts underlying what constitutes a crime as arising from academic and philosophical differences as to what comprises the best course of action for society, and values conflicts regarding perceptions of private property, rights or the appropriate conditions needed for peaceful living.

Significance

Conflict theories of criminal justice provide a significant touchstone for assessing the functionality and goals of any given criminal justice system. For example, according to a policy paper by the American Society of Criminology, one-third of all black males in the United States will be incarcerated at some point in their lifetime, a number which is significantly disproportionate to the incarceration rate of white males, or of females of any race. Racial conflict theory presents one potential explanation to be considered in evaluating this data.

History

While crimes and punishments have been prescribed by social systems since pre-Biblical times, criminology as a social institution involving police, courts and jails, is a modern development with seeds of development in the eighteenth century and significant growth in the nineteenth century through the present day. Writing in the mid-1800s, Karl Marx developed an economic conflict theory applicable to criminal justice as well as many other social institutions, positing that industrialization led to excess population, which was then socially and politically oppressed by those who benefited from the developing capitalist system. Max Weber, writing at the turn of the 20th century, viewed human culture as more beneficent than Marx did, viewing the conflicts underlying criminal justice as competing values rather than intentional oppression. George Simmel, at around the same time as Weber, looked at concepts of crime arising from clashes in cultural groups newly brought into contact with one another by increasing immigration patterns.

Function

Conflict theories function as one means of explaining the overarching philosophies behind different criminal justice policies and systems. As a branch of social philosophy, criminal justice conflict theories do not dictate what is right or wrong, or declare which system of criminal justice is superior. Rather, conflict theories are one mode of describing and analyzing the intentions and impacts of different criminal justice systems and events. For example, a normative analysis of the death penalty might look at costs, deterrence effects and systemic safeguards against improper convictions to describe whether the death penalty works to stop crime. A racial conflict theory analysis would examine the racial composition of defendants, victims, jurors and judges to determine if the death penalty works as a means for Caucasians to oppress black Americans.

Effects

Popularization of conflict theories of criminal justice has various effects. One effect amongst the general public may be, ironically, to exacerbate racial tensions. Publication of reports pointing out the disproportionality of incarceration of certain races can result in public and media backlash asserting that the data is due to certain races having a greater proclivity for taking part in criminal activities, rather than due to other races’ use of criminal laws to affect racial oppression. Another effect may be to encourage policy makers to change laws with obviously skewed impacts. For example, the U.S. Congress is presently under pressure to change onerous sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine, a less expensive drug favored by youths of lower socio-economic status, to be equivalent to the more lenient punishment for powdered cocaine, a more expensive drug favored by wealthy youth, college students and business persons.



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A “hosted” helpdesk app (AKA “SaaS”) does not require any installation, since it works on the vendor’s server. You just sign-up and start using it online, no “on-premise” installation required. Choosing the right hosted helpdesk for your company can be a challenging task. We reviewed 5 of them: Jitbit, Zendesk, Mojo, Kayako and Freshdesk Read More

You require complex AD-integration? Need MS Exchange/Outlook sync? Or your security policy simply does not allow any hosted services? Check the on-premise help desks (HelpSpot, Jitbit, Kayako ) Read More

Are you a bootstrapping startup with no funding, and no budget for a full-fledged commercial help desk ticket system? No problem, there are free solutions available (HESK, Kayako, Request-Tracker ) Read More

We review the top 3 cheapest SaaS service desk apps on the market. Check this out if you’re on a budget. Read More

You know these ones. Spiceworks, Zendesk, Jitbit, Freshdesk and osTicket reviewed. Read More

Zendesk, Jitbit, Freshdesk and desk.com compared by features. Read More

We have reviewed four open-source helpdesk systems. Some of them are commercial but still comes with the source codes, so you can modify it to fit your needs. Read More

Most notable solutions as of 2015 Read More

2016 is here already, so lets see the trends Read More

Some helpdesk apps try to do it differently, offering “public voting” for cases and other interesting features. Check them out. Read More

We just launched a helpdesk software directory where users can rate and review helpdesk apps.

Who’s behind this.

What is “help desk software” and how a help desk application can change the support process.

Learn the difference between a SaaS and an “on-premise” help desk app, find out which is best for you.

Watch for these must-have features when picking a help desk solution for you.

Learn how the help desk software tools evolved.



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Alcohol and Drug Detox Queens Village NY

Most people who enter alcohol and drug rehab need alcohol or drug detox. It’s normal for people to continue drinking or taking drugs up to the day they enter drug or alcohol treatment. This is not only because they enjoy the effect, but also because by the time someone in Queens Village goes into alcohol or drug rehab the withdrawal symptoms are likely to be bad enough to encourage them to keep using.

Creedmoor Addiction Treatment Center

8045 Winchester Boulevard
Queens Village, NY

Services Provided
Substance abuse. Buprenorphine Services
Types of Care
Residential short-term treatment (30 days or less)
Special Programs/Groups
Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Pregnant/postpartum women, Women, Men, Criminal justice clients
Language Services
Spanish

Saint Vincents Services Inc

8931 161st Street
Jamaica, NY

Services Provided
Substance abuse
Types of Care
Outpatient
Special Programs/Groups
Adolescents, Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders, Women, Men, DUI/DWI offenders, Criminal justice clients
Language Services
Spanish

Aurora Concept Inc

7839 Parsons Boulevard
Flushing, NY

Services Provided
Substance abuse
Types of Care
Residential long-term treatment (more than 30 days), Outpatient
Special Programs/Groups
Persons with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders, Persons with HIV/AIDS, Women, Men, DUI/DWI offenders, Criminal justice clients
Language Services
Spanish

8925 Parsons Boulevard
Jamaica, NY

Alcohol and Drug Detox

Most people who enter alcohol and drug rehab need alcohol or drug detox. It’s normal for people to continue drinking or taking drugs up to the day they enter drug or alcohol treatment. This is not only because they enjoy the effect, but also because by the time someone goes into alcohol or drug rehab the withdrawal symptoms are likely to be bad enough to encourage them to keep using.

Alcohol and Drug Detox Options

Some alcohol and drug detox centers offer more options than others. Some will have their own state-licensed facilities while others may contract with private companies or hospitals to provide medical detox.

Medical detox generally uses a mild form of medication to safely ease a person off of alcohol or drugs with as little discomfort as possible. Going through detox from alcohol or benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, such as hallucinations or life-threatening seizures. It is always advised that someone coming into alcohol and drug rehab with these addictions receive a medical detox. Some alcohol and drug detox centers also offer holistic therapies during this process, such as acupuncture and massage, to stimulate the body to help release toxins and minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is never recommended that individuals go “cold-turkey” off alcohol or drugs. As mentioned, this could result in life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. Some likely symptoms for withdrawal from alcohol, benzodiazepines and opiate-based drugs (codeine, hydrocodon.

Opiods and opiates are chemicals that affect the body by binding to the opiod receptors in the central nervous system. The most commonly used opiates, which are naturally occurring alkaloids of the opium poppy, are morphine and codeine. Read and find out more info regarding opiod and opiate detox.